The CS655 is a multiparameter smart sensor that uses innovative techniques to monitor soil volumetric-water content, bulk electrical conductivity, and temperature. It outputs an SDI-12 signal that many of our data loggers can measure. It has shorter rods than the CS650, for use in problem soils.
Note: The cable termination options for this sensor are not suitable for use with an ET107 station. For this type of station, use the CS655-LC sensor instead, which has a suitable cable connector.Read More
The CS655 consists of two 12-cm-long stainless steel rods connected to a printed circuit board. The circuit board is encapsulated in epoxy and a shielded cable is attached to the circuit board for data logger connection.
The CS655 measures propagation time, signal attenuation, and temperature. Dielectric permittivity, volumetric water content, and bulk electrical conductivity are then derived from these raw values.
Measured signal attenuation is used to correct for the loss effect on reflection detection and thus propagation time measurement. This loss-effect correction allows accurate water content measurements in soils with bulk EC ≤8 dS m-1 without performing a soil-specific calibration.
Soil bulk electrical conductivity is also calculated from the attenuation measurement. A thermistor in thermal contact with a probe rod near the epoxy surface measures temperature. Horizontal installation of the sensor provides accurate soil temperature measurement at the same depth as the water content. Temperature measurement in other orientations will be that of the region near the rod entrance into the epoxy body.
|Measurements Made||Soil electrical conductivity (EC), relative dielectric permittivity, volumetric water content (VWC), soil temperature|
|Required Equipment||Measurement system|
|Soil Suitability||Short rods are easy to install in hard soil. Suitable for soils with higher electrical conductivity.|
|Sensing Volume||3600 cm3 (~7.5 cm radius around each probe rod and 4.5 cm beyond the end of the rods)|
|Electromagnetic||CE compliant (Meets EN61326 requirements for protection against electrostatic discharge and surge.)|
|Operating Temperature Range||-50° to +70°C|
|Sensor Output||SDI-12; serial RS-232|
|Warm-up Time||3 s|
|Measurement Time||3 ms to measure; 600 ms to complete SDI-12 command|
|Power Supply Requirements||6 to 18 Vdc (Must be able to supply 45 mA @ 12 Vdc.)|
|Maximum Cable Length||610 m (2000 ft) combined length for up to 25 sensors connected to the same data logger control port|
|Rod Spacing||32 mm (1.3 in.)|
|Ingress Protection Rating||IP68|
|Rod Diameter||3.2 mm (0.13 in.)|
|Rod Length||120 mm (4.7 in.)|
|Probe Head Dimensions||85 x 63 x 18 mm (3.3 x 2.5 x 0.7 in.)|
|Cable Weight||35 g per m (0.38 oz per ft)|
|Probe Weight||240 g (8.5 oz) without cable|
|Active (3 ms)||
|Quiescent||135 µA typical (@ 12 Vdc)|
|Range for Solution EC||0 to 8 dS/m|
|Range for Bulk EC||0 to 8 dS/m|
|Accuracy||±(5% of reading + 0.05 dS/m)|
|Precision||0.5% of BEC|
Relative Dielectric Permittivity
|Range||1 to 81|
Volumetric Water Content
|Range||0 to 100% (with M4 command)|
|Water Content Accuracy||
|Range||-50° to +70°C|
Note: The following shows notable compatibility information. It is not a comprehensive list of all compatible or incompatible products.
External RF sources can affect the probe’s operation. Therefore, the probe should be located away from significant sources of RF such as ac power lines and motors.
Multiple CS655 probes can be installed within 4 inches of each other when using the standard data logger SDI-12 “M” command. The SDI-12 “M” command allows only one probe to be enabled at a time.
The CS650G makes inserting soil-water sensors easier in dense or rocky soils. This tool can be hammered into the soil with force that might damage the sensor if the CS650G was not used. It makes pilot holes into which the rods of the sensors can then be inserted.
Current CS650 and CS655 firmware.
Note: The Device Configuration Utility and A200 Sensor-to-PC Interface are required to upload the included firmware to the sensor.
Number of FAQs related to CS655: 55
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A CS650 or CS655 can be ordered with an SDI-12 address option of -VS. With the -VS option, the SDI-12 address is set at the factory before the sensor is shipped. The last digit of the sensor’s serial number becomes that sensor’s SDI-12 address. Typically, the -VS option is chosen when there are multiple sensors that will communicate with the data logger on the same SDI-12 communications terminal.
If the -VS option is not selected when ordering, the CS650 or CS655 will ship with its SDI-12 address set to 0 (the default -DS option). The address can be changed to a non-zero value using the A200 Sensor to PC Interface or by connecting the sensor to an SDI-12 communications terminal and sending the aAb! Command as described in the “SDI-12 Sensor Support” appendix of the CS650/CS655 manual.
The CWS655 is a wireless sensor with measurement electronics, radio, and power supply all integrated in a single device. The CWS655, however, requires the use of a CWB100 base station radio connected to a data logger. Only the rods of the CWS655 should be buried in the soil; burying the body of the CWS655 will prevent the sensor from communicating with the CWB100.
The CS655 is a cabled multiparameter smart sensor that sends data by RS-232 serial or SDI-12 communication through a direct connection to a data logger. The CS655 is suitable for burial at any depth.
No. It is not possible to disable the logical tests in the firmware. If soil conditions cause frequent NAN values, it may be possible to perform a soil-specific calibration that will provide good results.
If permittivity is reported but the volumetric water content value is NAN, Campbell Scientific recommends a soil-specific calibration that converts permittivity to water content. This will take advantage of the bulk electrical conductivity correction that occurs in the firmware.
If both permittivity and volumetric water content have NAN values, it may be possible to perform a calibration that converts period average directly to volumetric water content.
For details on performing a soil-specific calibration, refer to “The Water Content Reflectometer Method for Measuring Volumetric Water Content” section in the CS650/CS655 manual. After a soil-specific equation is determined, it may be programmed into the data logger program or used in a spreadsheet to calculate the soil water content.
The CS650 has rods that are 30 cm long, and the CS655 has rods that are 12 cm long. The difference in rod length causes some changes in specifications. For example, the CS650 is slightly more accurate in its permittivity and water content readings, but the CS655 works over a larger range of electrical conductivity. In addition, the CS650 handles a larger measurement volume and provides good accuracy in low EC (electrical conductivity) sand and sandy loam. The CS655 is typically more accurate in soil, works well over a wide range of soil textures and EC, and is easier to install because of its shorter rods.
In soil that is sandy, sandy loam, or loamy sand with low electrical conductivity, the CS650 is a suitable option because it has slightly better accuracy specifications than the CS655 and a larger measurement volume.
In soil that has a significant fraction of fines (loam, silt loam, silty clay loam, clay loam, clay), the CS655 is a suitable option because these soils tend to be more electrically conductive, and the CS655 operates over a larger range of electrical conductivity than the CS650. In applications where a smaller measurement volume is desired, such as larger greenhouse pots, the 12 cm long rods of the CS655 are preferable to the 30 cm long rods of the CS650.
If a system has multiple CS650 or CS655 sensors, it will be necessary to connect many wires to a 12 V supply and many wires to ground. The DIN Rail Mounting Kit is useful for attaching many wires to the same source in a clean and organized way. For more details, see the 5458 DIN Rail Terminal Kit instruction manual.
Other methods of connecting several wires together, such as terminal strips or wire nuts, would also work.
Probably not. The principle that makes these sensors work is that liquid water has a dielectric permittivity of close to 80, while soil solid particles have a dielectric permittivity of approximately 3 to 6. Because the permittivity of water is over an order of magnitude higher than that of soil solids, water content has a significant impact on the overall bulk dielectric permittivity of the soil. When the soil becomes very dry, that impact is minimized, and it becomes difficult for the sensor to detect small amounts of water. In air dry soil, there is residual water that does not respond to an electric field in the same way as it does when there is enough water to flow among soil pores. Residual water content can range from approximately 0.03 in coarse soils to approximately 0.25 in clay. In the natural environment, water contents below 0.05 indicate that the soil is as dry as it is likely to get. Very small changes in water content will likely cause a change in the sensor period average and permittivity readings, but, to interpret those changes, a very careful calibration using temperature compensation would need to be performed.
Campbell Scientific does not recommend using the CS650 or the CS655 to measure water content in compost. A compost pile is a very hostile environment for making dielectric measurements with soil water content sensors. All of the following combine to make it very difficult to determine a calibration function: high temperature, high and varying electrical conductivity, high organic matter content, heterogeneity of the material in the pile, changing particle size, and changing bulk density. The temperature and electrical conductivity values reported by the CS650 or CS655 may give some useful information about processes occurring in the compost pile, but these sensors will not be able to give useful readings for water content.
No. The principle that makes these sensors work is that liquid water has a dielectric permittivity of close to 80, while soil solid particles have a dielectric permittivity of approximately 3 to 6. Gasoline and other hydrocarbons have dielectric permittivities in the same range as soil particles, which essentially make them invisible to the CS650 and the CS655.